~e; Electromagnetic News & Views #96

From brian carroll <human@electronetwork.org>
Date Tue, 30 Mar 2004 21:38:49 -0600

Electromagnetic News & Views -- #96

00) Electronetwork.org Commentary (3/30/2004)

01) Top Stories of Electromagnetism
02) Electromagnetic health & safety
03) Electromagnetic trash & treasure
04) Electromagnetic security & surveillance
05) Electromagnetic power & energy
06) Electromagnetic current & human affairs
07) Electromagnetic transport & communication
08) Electromagnetic matter & information
09) Electromagnetic trends & inventions
10) Electromagnetic weaponry & warfare
11) Electromagnetic business & economics
12) Electromagnetic artworks & artifacts

00) --commentary-- no comments.

01) --top stories--

// as said in the last newsletter, the idea of a gas tax is equivalent  
to 'sin'
// in the .US due to private lobbies which think only in short-term  
// what has been said for 30 years has been an 'energy tax' which would  
// reasonable consumption into line with rising costs and demands--  
such that
// those who use more energy pay more for the energy, and it is not  
spread out
// across everyone as a subsidization of unsustainable growth (rather,  
// in the stock market they have such things, called 'circuit breakers'  
// elsewhere similar terminology describes what an accurate energy  
// could have on balancing overheated demand with ever more limited  
// it is an unrefutable fact that energy supplies will not meet .US  
// for cheaper or more energy, geopolitically nor can it be sustained  
by the
// local devastation of wilderness to continue current patterns of  
urban sprawl.
// the cultural bubble or mindset, that changes may not be a matter of  
// but economic and natinal security issues is dismissed over a gas-tax  
// which obscures the role energy policy plays in stabilizing world  
// else, if demand is greater than supply, and there is no way to  
fulfill that
// demand, another war must be in the offing to get those resources to  
// unless people and governments are willing to change, and optomize  

EM-quote: Kerry, Cheney fight on taxes, gas costs

	'At a fund-raiser in San Francisco last night, Kerry noted gas in  
California is almost $3 a gallon. "If it keeps going up like that,  
folks, Dick Cheney and President Bush are going to have to carpool to  
work together," he said.'

[and] New Bush Ad Assails Kerry on Gas Taxes // hmmm.... wacky idea...

// the Cheney Administration must stop distorting these critical  

[Exhibit A] Oil futures -- The world could again feel the pressure
of Opec's hand on the petrol pump, writes William Keegan

	'So the roundabout of the market has, to some extent, compensated oil  
producers for the downward swing in the dollar. But although the dollar  
has staged the odd rally recently, few serious analysts seriously  
believe it is destined to recover to its previous levels in the  
foreseeable future in light of the US trade deficit and the pile-up of  
claims on the US Treasury.' .. 'It may well be, therefore, that Opec  
will compensate for the erosion in purchasing power by trying to lift  
the sustainable price range. There is a precedent for price hikes to  
compensate for dollar devaluation, and it is not a comfortable one.' ..  
'The first oil crisis, although prompted by the political furore over  
the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, and the use of the "oil weapon", was also a  
response to the devaluation of the dollar that took place in the course  
of the breakdown of the Bretton Woods fixed exchange rate system in  
1971-73.' ... 'The interesting question is whether in an ideal world  
Opec would like to keep the price above $30 a barrel - which could bode  
ill for the Bush administration.'

// (long term radiation may foretell dirty-bomb devastation issues)
// (still wonder how someone can touch materials and sit down and
// not gather radioactive dust when leaving after such interaction).
// beyond the big egg, touring the nuclear desert...

GHOST TOWN - my rides through chernobyl area // thanks *

	'In theory radiation will stay in Chernobil area for the next 48.000  
years, but in reality first people must start to populate those area  
already in some 300- 900 years. This is when the most dangerous  
elements will dissapear.'


	'The place in front of me called red or magic wood. In 1986 this wood  
has been red with radiation and then they cut it off and left there and  
bury under 1 meter of earth.'


	'it is last day of Pompei sort of place.'

[and] Ukrainian Nuclear Reactor Is Shut Down

Nuclear inspectors return to Iran // nuclear diplomacy...

// sounds similar to an earlier discarded theory of the aether/aetheric  

Researchers Suggest That 'Dark-Matter Highway' May Be Streaming Through  

	'As Earth orbits around the center of the galaxy, the planet flies  
through this cloud of dark matter. As that happens, billions of these  
weakly interacting (and therefore difficult to detect) particles could  
be passing through each of our bodies every second.'

[ref.] The Michelson-Morley Experiment

	'Michelson calculated that an aether windspeed of only one or two  
miles a second would have observable effects in this experiment, so if  
the aether windspeed was comparable to the earth's speed in orbit  
around the sun, it would be easy to see. In fact, nothing was observed.  
The light intensity did not vary at all. Some time later, the  
experiment was redesigned so that an aether wind caused by the earth's  
daily rotation could be detected. Again, nothing was seen. Finally,  
Michelson wondered if the aether was somehow getting stuck to the  
earth, like the air in a below-decks cabin on a ship, so he redid the  
experiment on top of a high mountain in California. Again, no aether  
wind was observed. It was difficult to believe that the aether in the  
immediate vicinity of the earth was stuck to it and moving with it,  
because light rays from stars would deflect as they went from the  
moving faraway aether to the local stuck aether.' .. 'The only possible  
conclusion from this series of very difficult experiments was that the  
whole concept of an all-pervading aether was wrong from the start.  
Michelson was very reluctant to think along these lines.'

[and] Michelson-Morley Experiments Revisited and
the Cosmic Background Radiation Preferred Frame

[and] Luminiferous aether

	'Physics theory of the late 19th century postulated that, as must  
water waves have a medium to move across, water, and audible sound  
waves a medium to move through, air, light waves require a medium, the  
"luminiferous aether." The speed of light being so great, designing an  
experiment to detect the presence and properties of this aether took  
considerable thought.'

[and] Michelson-Morley experiment // ~The most famous failed experiment~

	'Ironically, after all this thought and preparation, the experiment  
became "the most famous failed experiment of all time".  Instead of  
providing insight to the properties of the aether, it produced none of  
the effects to be expected if the Earth's motion produced an "aether  
wind."  The apparatus behaved as if there were no wind at all -- as if  
the Earth had no motion with reference to a medium.' .. 'This result  
was rather astounding and not explainable by the then-current theory of  
wave propagation.  Several explanations were attempted, among them,  
that the experiment had a hidden flaw (apparently Michelson's initial  
belief), or that the Earth's gravitational field somehow "dragged" the  
aether around with it in such a way as locally to eliminate its effect.'

[and] Lorentz, Relativity and the Propagation of Electromagnetic waves

	'Current orthodox theory forbids any criticism of Einstein Relativity,  
denies the reality of the aether, denies with one hand that radiation  
is a purely wave phenomenon, whilst with the other saying that we no  
longer need to think of it as made of particles [3], represents the  
various different forces by different particles, and excommunicates  
anyone who dares suggest that light ever changes speed (despite the  
fact that this is precisely what Einstein's General Relativity  
predicts!). This is a straightjacket that bears little relationship  
with reality and is inhibiting progress.'


	'RAMIFICATION 1: This fatally flawed Michelson-Morley Aether  
Experiment is one of only two indicators, in all of physics history,  
that the aether does not exist. But I have invalidated the other as  
well; the Non-Skewed Light Waves Experiment. ALL other phenomena, even  
gravity force (see my complete work), are bona fide, prima facie  
evidence that the aether MUST exist, just as Einstein said. With these  
two invalidations, there is no standing argument against the existence  
of the Aether. Ergo: The Aether exists. But neither has its existence  
been proven by a specifically engineered experiment. Such an experiment  
is not required in view of the overwhelming evidence that already  
exists, for the aether. However, I provide several in the complete  
work; that I expect will work. But I still insist that, light waves of  
starlight, radio waves, heat and all the rest of electromagnetic waves,  
plus gravity, are continuing demonstrations that are, in effect,  
experiments that prove the existence of the aether.'

[and]  Dark Matter is Ether

[quote] Is There An Ether? // from: Einstein About the Ether

	'In "Ether and Relativity", 1920, Sidelights on Relativity, page 23,  
Einstein writes: "Recapitulating, we may say that according to the  
general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities;  
in this sense, therefore, there exists an ether.  According to the  
general theory of relativity space without an ether is unthinkable; for  
in such a space there not only would be no propogation of light, but  
also no possibility of existance for standards of space and time  
(measuring-rods and clocks), nor therefore any space-time intervals in  
the physical sense..."...'

[and] Michelson-Morley Experiment

AETHER returns as the Next Theory of Space.

02-- electromagnetic health & safety

Microwaves Can Kill Off Some Breast Cancers // hopeful news.

	'Small, clearly demarcated  breast tumors can be successfully treated  
with microwave  radiation to heat and destroy the cancer -- a technique  
known  as radiofrequency (RF) ablation.' ... 'The clinicians used  
real-time ultrasound guidance to place  the umbrella-like prongs of the  
RF electrode around the tumor,  and then maintained a temperature of 95  
degrees Centigrade for  5 minutes.'

Buckyballs cause brain damage in fish // nanotoxicity

	'The soccer-ball-shaped molecules show great promise in  
nanotechnology. But the preliminary study raises the possibility that  
nanomaterials could cause significant environmental harm, although much  
further work is needed to establish the extent of this risk.' ... '"We  
believe that nanomaterials are eventually going to be made in  
large-scale quantities, so we need to understand their environmental  
and toxicological effects," says Kirsten Kulinowski, executive director  
of the Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology at Rice  
University in Houston, Texas.'

Invisible Light And Special Goggles May Improve Brain Tumor Surgery

Report Shows 'Unequivocal Evidence' That Media Violence Has
Significant Negative Impact On Children // behavioral conditioning...

	'In the short-term, media violence can increase aggression by priming  
aggressive thoughts and decision processes, increasing physiological  
arousal, and triggering a tendency to imitate observed behaviors. In  
the long-term, repeated exposure can produce lasting increases in  
aggressive thought patterns and aggression-supporting beliefs about  
social behavior, and can reduce individuals' normal negative emotional  
responses to violence.'

Seeing-Eye Computer Guides Blind

03-- electromagnetic trash & treasure

// "Whatever you do, don't call it a [nuclear] dump," he said.

In One Small Town, Radioactive Waste Is a Welcome Sight

	'"We hear the word `nuclear' and it's a good thing," said Tim Moore,  
the mayor of this poor, sparsely populated town 70 miles south of  
Columbia. "We're happy to have the stuff. It doesn't scare us one  
bit."' .. 'For more than 30 years, Snelling has eagerly housed one of  
the oldest and most active graveyards for atomic waste. The 235-acre  
site, operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems Inc., is the only place in the  
United States licensed to take retired steam generators and pressure  
vessels, and the only one where the 39 states east of the Rockies can  
send the most radioactive of low-level waste.' ... 'Standing at the  
edge of a pit with a Geiger counter in his hand, Eddie Green said he  
rarely worried about radiation exposure. "Around here, this is probably  
the best job there is," said Mr. Green, 43, whose title is health  
physics technician but who is better known as a member of "the rad  
police."  "You can't beat the benefits."'

Spammer's Porsche up for grabs
Internet giant AOL has ratcheted up the war against unsolicited e-mail  
a publicity-grabbing coup - an online raffle of a spammer's seized  

HP bolsters Earth Day recycle offer

Titania Nanotube Hydrogen Sensors Clean Themselves:  Self-cleaning  
sensors may soon join the ranks of self-cleaning ovens, self-cleaning  
and self-cleaning public toilets, according to Penn State researchers.

Ozone-destroying Gas In Atmostphere Increased Significantly During
Industrial Age, Study Shows // industrial age a.k.a. electrification...

	'The team concluded that during the industrial era, the amount of  
global atmospheric methyl bromide in Southern Hemisphere air appears to  
have increased by 3.5 parts per trillion, or approximately 50 percent  
of the preindustrial level of the gas.'

04-- electromagnetic security & surveillance

Top IT person at Homeland Security quits: Incredulous credentials

	'The university isn't licensed and isn't accredited by the US  
Department of Education as one congressman put it Hamilton was a  
"diploma mill".' ... 'It is nice to know that the department to checks  
citizen and tourists so thoroughly at airports, checks out its own  
employees with such care. µ'

Online Security: Who's Liable? // secure dial-up, encyption needed...

	'Though business groups have lobbied successfully against laws focused  
on cybersecurity, companies that don't make efforts to secure their  
networks could face civil and criminal penalties under an array of  
existing laws and court decisions, according to security and legal  

Hot on the Trail of IT Forensics

Is your computer spying on you?

	'Along with imposing pop-up ads and collecting data about users,  
spyware can change computer settings without users' consent, change  
users' Internet home pages, or send them to counterfeit versions of  
familiar websites, where they are enticed to give out personal  

BT denies cable fire was in A-bomb exchange // telco exchange...

With Gas Prices Soaring, Kerry Offers America True Energy Independence;
Outlines Plan to Lower Gas Prices, Fuel the Economy // energy as  
security issue.

05-- electromagnetic power & energy

Kerry announces plan to control gas costs

	'"Instead of secret energy meetings and drilling in the Alaskan  
wilderness, we're going to have a real energy plan for America," Kerry  
said. "Under my plan, America will be energy independent from Mideast  
oil in 10 years, the fuels of the future will be less expensive,  
cleaner, and our young men and women will never have to fight and die  
for foreign oil."' ... 'Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham told a Senate  
hearing last week that diverting 150,000 barrels of oil a day into the  
Strategic Petroleum Reserve "is fairly negligible" in a global oil  
market of 86 million barrels a day. Filling the oil reserve with 55  
million barrels to reach its maximum 700 million barrels was "a  
critical national security objective," he said.'

Government to lower electricity voltage 5% // *** Argentina

	'Argentina reduced the country's electricity voltage by 5 percent in a  
bid to save energy, heightening concern that a shortage in the country  
will prompt blackouts and crimp economic growth.' .. 'The government  
said it will lower the country's voltage to 208 volts from 220 volts,  
leaving users with less power to operate computers, televisions and  
other machinery. Last week the government cut electricity exports to  
Uruguay and told 31 of the country's biggest power users to reduce  
their consumption...'

[and] Brazil sells electricity to crisis-hit Argentina

	'"There has been an emergency delivery," Rousseff told reporters.' ..  
'"There is a cooperation agreement between the two countries and when  
one operator asks for emergency (deliveries), energy is supplied over  
short, limited periods. I am not sure but it seems that energy is  
supplied over a 48-hour period," she said.' ... 'The shortage of energy  
supplies in Argentina has been caused by growing demand amid the  
country's rapid economic recovery after years of economic crises.'

Nation cracks down on electricity theft // .cn

	'According to SERC, nearly 50,000 cases of electricity theft and  
sabotage of power grids occurred in the 21 months before September  
2003, incurring 200 million yuan (24 million US dollars)worth of direct  

Opec mulls wisdom of output cut
Oil cartel Opec is set to activate cuts in output of 1 million barrels a
day on 1 April - but pressure is building for the decision to be  

	'The over-production may mean that even if the cut officially goes  
ahead, real output may not change much.'

Carmakers Pull Plug on Electric Vehicles

Amazon pipeline plan 'damaging'
Opponents of a gas pipeline project in Peru's Amazon have released  
government documents to show the damage caused to the rainforest and  

EM-quote: Conspicious Construction // SOM Burj Dubai

	'Keeping the building standing is only the first of a complex series  
of problems in a tower so high. The Burj's relatively small footprint  
requires a single 11,000-voltage power line routed through a series of  
transformers throughout the building; Dubai's burning sunlight  
necessitates coating the windows with special glazing; water pressure  
must be enhanced with a series of zoned pumping stations; and, to  
minimize commuting time, the elevators will zoom at 3,600 feet per  
minute. Going up, that is. "Coming down has to be a lot slower," says  
Raymond J. Clark, SOM's partner in charge of mechanical and electrical  
engineering, "or else you'd blow out people's ears."'

[and] Conspicious Construction // Yucca Mountain

	'If the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licenses Yucca Mountain in 2009,  
the first stage of a 300-year project will commence in 2010...' ...  
'When a tunnel is full, it will be monitored for 300 years, then sealed  

Shot of alcohol greases micromachines // MEMs motors

Chinese dams blamed for Mekong's bizarre flow

06-- electromagnetic current & human affairs

EM-quote: Truth as a Weapon By MAUREEN DOWD

	'Dick Cheney, Rummy et al. were on amber alert, "preserved in amber,"  
as Mr. Clarke put it, obsessing on old G.O.P. issues that had been hot  
when they were last in power, like a menacing Saddam and a Star Wars  
missile shield to protect America from the awesome might of the Evil  

EM-quote: A Glance at State of Arab Democracy // free media,  

	'QATAR: Promising parliamentary elections after holding first  
municipal elections in 1999, with women fully participating. Famous as  
home of al-Jazeera satellite TV station, lambasted by Arab and Western  
governments for shows critical of governments. Qataris overwhelmingly  
voted in April 2003 for a new constitution that guarantees freedom of  
expression, religion, assembly and association. It also provides for a  
45-member parliament, two-thirds of which will be elected and the rest  
appointed by the emir.'

EM-headline: Clarke challenges Rice to reveal secret emails //  

Europe's Cold Sweat Over Kyoto

Life on Mars - but 'we sent it' // contaminating Mars?

	'Most Earth bugs that hitch-hiked to Mars would probably perish  
quickly, but it is not a certainty.'

Human Studies Show Feasibility Of Brain-machine Interfaces // i think,  

	'In their first human studies of the feasibility of using brain  
signals to operate external devices, researchers at Duke University  
Medical Center report that arrays of electrodes can provide useable  
signals for controlling such devices. The research team is now working  
to develop prototype devices that may enable paralyzed people to  
operate "neuroprosthetic" and other external devices using only their  
brain signals.' ... 'According to Nicolelis, another major difference  
between the initial human studies and the monkey studies is that  
recording in the human patients were made from electrodes inserted  
deeper into the brain, in subcortical structures, rather than the  
cortical surface.' .. '"This shows that one can extract information not  
only from cortical areas, but from subcortical ones, too," said  
Nicolelis. "This suggests that in the future, there will be more  
options for sampling neuronal information to control a prosthetic  
device," he said.' ... 'A key question in future clinical studies will  
be whether humans can incorporate [prosthetic] devices into their  
"schema," or neural representation of the external world, said  

07-- electromagnetic transport & communication

A 21st-century protest: Text messages and email proved to be useful  
when a disillusioned Spanish electorate wanted to vent its anger on
the eve of the general election. Andrew Losowsky reports

EM-quote: Russia's Future, Putin's Legacy

	'About one in four Russians now has a mobile phone, up from about 0.5  
percent of the population four years ago, and the number of Internet  
users has tripled.'

Phone TV not yet picture-perfect: MobiTV offers nice range
of cable channels, but images have slide-show appearance

Mobile Phones to Operate TV Recorder, Says Opera

	'Mobile phones can soon be used to control a video recorder for people  
away from home when their favorite programs are on, Norwegian mobile  
phone Internet browser maker Opera Software said on Tuesday.'

08-- electromagnetic matter & information

Return of the homebrew coder
Software: Most modern software is written by huge teams of programmers.  
there is still room for homebrew coders, at least in some unusual niches

Spam being rapidly outpaced by 'spim' // noise-noise ratio...

	'Spimmers bury the code in a link or file and send it to an IM user.  
If the user activates the code, the spimmer can then message people on  
the user's buddy list by borrowing their identity.'

NASA Uses A 'SLEUTH' To Predict Urban Land Use // EM  

	'"The [IKONOS and Landsat satellite] model is a tool that can be used  
for land use planning and resource management," Jantz said. "It offers  
the ability to explore and visualize alternative futures."'

New Polyelectrolyte Inks Create Fine-scale Structures Through Direct  

	'The precisely patterned parts could be used as bio-scaffolds,  
micro-fluidic networks, sensor arrays or templates for photonic  

09-- electromagnetic trends & inventions

The Isaac Newton of logic-- It was 150 years ago that George Boole
published his classic The Laws of Thought, in which he outlined
concepts that form the underpinnings of the modern high-speed computer.

	'In computers based on binary operations, Boolean logic is used to  
describe electromagnetically charged memory locations or circuit states  
that are either charged (1, or true) or not charged (0, or false). The  
computer can use an "and" gate or an "or" gate operation to obtain a  
result that can be used for further processing.'

Robotic lumberjack dives to harvest flooded forests

	'... Sawfish can cut 36 trees in three or four hours, operating as far  
as 300 metres down.'

10-- electromagnetic weaponry & warfare

Iran Hiding Its Nuclear Activities, Report Says

GM plant tracks land mines // related to EM

EM-quote: Report slams Israel spy failures // similar to .US WMD  

	'Military intelligence and the Mossad spy agency wrongly played up the  
risk from Iraqi weapons of mass destruction, said the report by a  
Knesset committee.' ... 'The committee said there had been a serious  
failure and reform was needed.' ... 'The original purpose of the  
inquiry was to find out whether Israel's intelligence agencies had  
exaggerated the extent of Iraqi weapons capabilities before last year's  
US-led invasion.' ... 'It said they did not succeed in providing  
"inarguable indications" that Iraq had non-conventional weapons, nor  
did they manage to allay concerns by proving evidence to the contrary.'  
.. 'The committee, headed by the Likud party's Yuval Steinitz, said  
there had been a "serious intelligence failure that must lead to  
house-cleaning and reorganisation".'

Russia Boasts Weapon to Battle Star Wars // repercussions of broken  

	'If deployed, the new weapon would take the value of any U.S. missile  
shield to "zero," the news agencies quoted the official as saying.' ..  
'The official said the new weapon would be inexpensive, providing an  
"asymmetric answer" to U.S. missile defenses, which are proving  
extremely costly to develope.'

EM-quote: Russia expels Lithuania diplomats

	'Russia's Defence Minister Sergei Ivanov had warned such plans would  
lead Moscow to reassess its military planning, including a possible  
build-up of the country's nuclear defences.'

EM-quote: Iraq War Launched to Protect Israel - Bush Adviser // PFIAB  

	'In his university speech, Zelikow, who strongly backed attacking the  
Iraqi dictator, also explained the threat to Israel by arguing that  
Baghdad was preparing in 1990-91 to spend huge amounts of "scarce hard  
currency" to harness "communications against electromagnetic pulse", a  
side-effect of a nuclear explosion that could sever radio, electronic  
and electrical communications.'
.. 'That was "a perfectly absurd expenditure unless you were going to  
ride out a nuclear exchange -- they (Iraqi officials) were not  
preparing to ride out a nuclear exchange with us. Those were  
preparations to ride out a nuclear exchange with the Israelis",  
according to Zelikow.' ... '... [professor of political science at  
George Washington University and an expert on the Middle East, Nathan]  
Brown says Zelikow's words carried weight.'

// it would be important to know who this weapon is to protect against,  
// it may be a low priority given where things are today,  
// who has strategic weapons and who is planning to use them? there is  
// one country in the world that is said to pose a threat, which would  
be an
// asymmetric expenditure for the benefit of the costs, it would seem,  
// treaties & other mechanisms may provide needed defenses, if shored  
back up.
// note: this is unlikely to protect any from 'terrorist' threats or  
// if it is not state-based or state-sanctioned nor military-based  
// it would be a quick-way to emtpy, by boondoggle, a 21st century  
treasury if
// restarting a pointless 'race' that is impossible to compete in or  

Shooting Stars: U.S. Military Takes First Step Towards Weapons in Space

	'The first real step in that direction appears to be coming in the  
form of a little-noticed weapons program at the U.S. Missile Defense  
Agency. The agency has now earmarked $68 million in 2005 for something  
called the Near Field Infrared Experiment.' .. 'The NFIRE satellite is  
primarily designed to gather data on exhaust plumes from rockets  
launched from earth, and defense officials claim it is therefore  
designed as a defensive, rather than offensive weapons.' .. 'But the  
satellite will also contain a smaller "kill vehicle," a projectile that  
takes advantage of the kinetic energy of objects traveling through  
low-Earth orbit (which move at several times the speed of a bullet) to  
disable or destroy an oncoming missile or another orbiting satellite.'  
.. 'As one senior government official and defense expert described the  
program, which has seen cost-related delays and increased congressional  
scrutiny: "We're crossing the Rubicon into space weaponization."'

11-- electromagnetic business & economics

This Googlebomb cost $44.75 (or three weblogs)

	'For small web businesses who depend on visibility in Google or  
Yahoo!, it's no laughing matter.'

How Gas Prices Work

Oil prices fall as OPEC offers possibility of postponing output cut

[and] Oil Up After Saudi Backs April OPEC Cut

Gates: Hardware Will Be Free // doubtful, if resources costed-out not  

12-- electromagnetic artworks & artifacts

10,000 Micron wafers trashed, wire claims // interesting...

// this place has trashed wafer artifacts for artworks, teaching....

4" Diameter Silicon IC Wafer - G13302

5" Diameter Silicon IC Wafer - G13303

Giant IC Wafer - G13746

4" Diameter Silicon IC Wafer - G13302

Large IC DIE-G1922

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